Case #2
Anxiety disorder, OCD, or something else?

8-year-old black male

 

Decision Point One


 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Decision Point Two
BASED ON THE ABOVE INFORMATION, SELECT YOUR NEXT ACTION. BE CERTAIN TO DISCUSS THE RATIONALE FOR YOUR DECISION.


Begin Zoloft 50 mg orally daily

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • Upon return to the clinic, Tyrel’s mother reported that he has had some decrease in his symptoms. She notices that he is still handwashing frequently, but thinks that the frequency has decreased “a bit.”
  • She also reports that Tyrel has not fully embraced returning to school, but that his attendance has improved.
  • Tyrel’s mom is concerned about the decrease in Tyrel’s appetite. She reports that he has been having some decreased appetite and has complained of feeling “sick to his stomach.”
Decision Point Three
BASED ON THE ABOVE INFORMATION, SELECT YOUR NEXT ACTION. BE CERTAIN TO DISCUSS THE RATIONALE FOR YOUR DECISION.


Discontinue Zoloft and begin Fluvoxamine controlled release 100 mg orally every morning
Guidance to Student

In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this.

Zoloft is FDA-approved to treat OCD in children. However, between ages 6 and 12, it should be started at 25 mg orally daily. If starting doses are too high, the child may experience side effects that he associates with the medication and as such, may refuse to take the medication. Starting at too high a dose can result in unfavorable side effects (gastrointestinal side effects are notable in this drug), and we can see that Tyrel is experiencing nausea and decreased appetite. In this case, it is recommended to wait to see if the side effects dissipate. Decreasing the dose to 12.5 mg orally daily for about 3 or 4 days, then going back to 25 mg orally daily may help to overcome the unfavorable side effects. If side effects persist, the PMHNP may need to consider switching to a different medication.

Fluvoxamine controlled release is not FDA-approved for use in children with OCD (see “Special Populations: Children and Adolescents” in the Fluvoxamine monograph of Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide for further details). Fluvoxamine 100 mg orally daily may not be tolerated in the morning secondary to the drug’s sigma-1 antagonist properties, which can cause sedation. Dosing of Fluvoxamine should be such that the larger dose is given in the evening to minimize daytime sedation. It is also worth noting that nothing in the scenario tells us that the Zoloft will not be effective.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is the psychotherapy of choice for treating OCD. The PMHNP should augment medication therapy with CBT. If further assessment determines that Tyrel has social anxiety disorder, CBT is effective in treating this condition as well.


Augment with cognitive behavioral therapy
Guidance to Student

In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this.

Zoloft is FDA-approved to treat OCD in children. However, between ages 6 and 12, it should be started at 25 mg orally daily. If starting doses are too high, the child may experience side effects that he associates with the medication and as such, may refuse to take the medication. Starting at too high a dose can result in unfavorable side effects (gastrointestinal side effects are notable in this drug), and we can see that Tyrel is experiencing nausea and decreased appetite. In this case, it is recommended to wait to see if the side effects dissipate. Decreasing the dose to 12.5 mg orally daily for about 3 or 4 days, then going back to 25 mg orally daily may help to overcome the unfavorable side effects. If side effects persist, the PMHNP may need to consider switching to a different medication.

Fluvoxamine controlled release is not FDA-approved for use in children with OCD (see “Special Populations: Children and Adolescents” in the Fluvoxamine monograph of Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide for further details). Fluvoxamine 100 mg orally daily may not be tolerated in the morning secondary to the drug’s sigma-1 antagonist properties, which can cause sedation. Dosing of Fluvoxamine should be such that the larger dose is given in the evening to minimize daytime sedation. It is also worth noting that nothing in the scenario tells us that the Zoloft will not be effective.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is the psychotherapy of choice for treating OCD. The PMHNP should augment medication therapy with CBT. If further assessment determines that Tyrel has social anxiety disorder, CBT is effective in treating this condition as well.


Increase Zoloft to 100 mg orally daily
Guidance to Student

In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this.

Zoloft is FDA-approved to treat OCD in children. However, between ages 6 and 12, it should be started at 25 mg orally daily. If starting doses are too high, the child may experience side effects that he associates with the medication and as such, may refuse to take the medication. Starting at too high a dose can result in unfavorable side effects (gastrointestinal side effects are notable in this drug), and we can see that Tyrel is experiencing nausea and decreased appetite. In this case, it is recommended to wait to see if the side effects dissipate. Decreasing the dose to 12.5 mg orally daily for about 3 or 4 days, then going back to 25 mg orally daily may help to overcome the unfavorable side effects. If side effects persist, the PMHNP may need to consider switching to a different medication.

Fluvoxamine controlled release is not FDA-approved for use in children with OCD (see “Special Populations: Children and Adolescents” in the Fluvoxamine monograph of Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide for further details). Fluvoxamine 100 mg orally daily may not be tolerated in the morning secondary to the drug’s sigma-1 antagonist properties, which can cause sedation. Dosing of Fluvoxamine should be such that the larger dose is given in the evening to minimize daytime sedation. It is also worth noting that nothing in the scenario tells us that the Zoloft will not be effective.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is the psychotherapy of choice for treating OCD. The PMHNP should augment medication therapy with CBT. If further assessment determines that Tyrel has social anxiety disorder, CBT is effective in treating this condition as well.


Begin Fluvoxamine immediate release 25 mg orally at bedtime

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • Upon return to the clinic, Tyrel’s mother reported that he has had some decrease in his symptoms. She states that the frequency of the handwashing has decreased, and Tyrel seems a bit more “relaxed” overall.
  • She also reports that Tyrel has not fully embraced returning to school, but that his attendance has improved. She reported that over this past weekend, Tyrel went outside to play with his friend from across the street, which he has not done in a while.
Decision Point Three
BASED ON THE ABOVE INFORMATION, SELECT YOUR NEXT ACTION. BE CERTAIN TO DISCUSS THE RATIONALE FOR YOUR DECISION.


Increase Fluvoxamine to 50 mg orally at bedtime
Guidance to Student

In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this.

Fluvoxamine immediate release is FDA-approved for the treatment of OCD in children aged 8 years and older. Fluvoxamine’s sigma-1 antagonist properties may cause sedation and as such, it should be dosed in the evening/bedtime.

At this point, it would be appropriate to consider increasing the bedtime dose, especially since the child is responding to the medication and there are no negative side effects.

Atypical antipsychotics are typically not used in the treatment of OCD. There is also nothing to tell us that an atypical antipsychotic would be necessary (e.g., no psychotic symptoms). Additionally, the child seems to be responding to the medication, so there is no rationale as to why an atypical antipsychotic would be added to the current regimen.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is the psychotherapy of choice for treating OCD. The PMHNP should augment medication therapy with CBT. If further assessment determines that Tyrel has social anxiety disorder, CBT is effective in treating this condition as well.


Augment with an atypical antipsychotic such as Abilify
Guidance to Student

In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this.

Fluvoxamine immediate release is FDA-approved for the treatment of OCD in children aged 8 years and older. Fluvoxamine’s sigma-1 antagonist properties may cause sedation and as such, it should be dosed in the evening/bedtime.

At this point, it would be appropriate to consider increasing the bedtime dose, especially since the child is responding to the medication and there are no negative side effects.

Atypical antipsychotics are typically not used in the treatment of OCD. There is also nothing to tell us that an atypical antipsychotic would be necessary (e.g., no psychotic symptoms). Additionally, the child seems to be responding to the medication, so there is no rationale as to why an atypical antipsychotic would be added to the current regimen.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is the psychotherapy of choice for treating OCD. The PMHNP should augment medication therapy with CBT. If further assessment determines that Tyrel has social anxiety disorder, CBT is effective in treating this condition as well.


Augment treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy
Guidance to Student

In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this.

Fluvoxamine immediate release is FDA-approved for the treatment of OCD in children aged 8 years and older. Fluvoxamine’s sigma-1 antagonist properties may cause sedation and as such, it should be dosed in the evening/bedtime.

At this point, it would be appropriate to consider increasing the bedtime dose, especially since the child is responding to the medication and there are no negative side effects.

Atypical antipsychotics are typically not used in the treatment of OCD. There is also nothing to tell us that an atypical antipsychotic would be necessary (e.g., no psychotic symptoms). Additionally, the child seems to be responding to the medication, so there is no rationale as to why an atypical antipsychotic would be added to the current regimen.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is the psychotherapy of choice for treating OCD. The PMHNP should augment medication therapy with CBT. If further assessment determines that Tyrel has social anxiety disorder, CBT is effective in treating this condition as well.


Begin Fluvoxamine controlled release 100 mg orally in the morning

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • Tyrel’s mom reports that Tyrel took the medication for the first week, but she stopped giving it to him after that because “he was so drugged up.” She reports that Tyrel was impossible to wake up, and missed an entire week of school due to his sedation from the medication.
  • She reports that during that week, the frequency of handwashing decreased because “poor Tyrel was too doped up to wash his hands.” However, she reports that 2 days after she stopped giving him the medication, he resumed handwashing behaviors.
Decision Point Three
BASED ON THE ABOVE INFORMATION, SELECT YOUR NEXT ACTION. BE CERTAIN TO DISCUSS THE RATIONALE FOR YOUR DECISION.


Tyrel’s mom to continue the current medication dose and educate her that the side effects will abate with time
Guidance to Student

In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this.

Fluvoxamine controlled release is not FDA-approved for use in children with OCD (see “Special Populations: Children and Adolescents” in the Fluvoxamine monograph of Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide for further details). Fluvoxamine 100 mg orally daily may not be tolerated in the morning secondary to the drug’s sigma-1 antagonist properties, which can cause sedation. Dosing of Fluvoxamine should be such that the larger dose is given in the evening to minimize daytime sedation.

Recall that it is generally not appropriate to treat the side effects of one medication with another medication, especially when those side effects can be overcome by changing to a different preparation of the medication (in this case, immediate release), or can be minimized by a change in timing of the medication (in this case, changing the medication to bedtime). In some cases, medications are used to treat side effects of medication (for example, propranolol is often used to treat tremors associated with lithium); but these types of “exceptions” are few and far between. Always try to treat side effects by a different preparation, or different administration time. Avoid polypharmacy whenever possible.


Change to immediate-release Fluvoxamine 25 mg orally at bedtime
Guidance to Student

In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this.

Fluvoxamine controlled release is not FDA-approved for use in children with OCD (see “Special Populations: Children and Adolescents” in the Fluvoxamine monograph of Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide for further details). Fluvoxamine 100 mg orally daily may not be tolerated in the morning secondary to the drug’s sigma-1 antagonist properties, which can cause sedation. Dosing of Fluvoxamine should be such that the larger dose is given in the evening to minimize daytime sedation.

Recall that it is generally not appropriate to treat the side effects of one medication with another medication, especially when those side effects can be overcome by changing to a different preparation of the medication (in this case, immediate release), or can be minimized by a change in timing of the medication (in this case, changing the medication to bedtime). In some cases, medications are used to treat side effects of medication (for example, propranolol is often used to treat tremors associated with lithium); but these types of “exceptions” are few and far between. Always try to treat side effects by a different preparation, or different administration time. Avoid polypharmacy whenever possible.


Administer Armodafinil 50 mg orally daily to overcome sedation associated with the medication
Guidance to Student

In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this.

Fluvoxamine controlled release is not FDA-approved for use in children with OCD (see “Special Populations: Children and Adolescents” in the Fluvoxamine monograph of Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide for further details). Fluvoxamine 100 mg orally daily may not be tolerated in the morning secondary to the drug’s sigma-1 antagonist properties, which can cause sedation. Dosing of Fluvoxamine should be such that the larger dose is given in the evening to minimize daytime sedation.

Recall that it is generally not appropriate to treat the side effects of one medication with another medication, especially when those side effects can be overcome by changing to a different preparation of the medication (in this case, immediate release), or can be minimized by a change in timing of the medication (in this case, changing the medication to bedtime). In some cases, medications are used to treat side effects of medication (for example, propranolol is often used to treat tremors associated with lithium); but these types of “exceptions” are few and far between. Always try to treat side effects by a different preparation, or different administration time. Avoid polypharmacy whenever possible.